This article is sponsored by Colorado Extraction Systems, a Colorado-based company with decades of expertise and knowledge in extraction, distillation, and evaporation equipment manufacturing.
Cannabis has been used by humans for thousands of years. Especially for medical purposes. It was generally used to cure different illnesses and pains, primarily those of the muscle and bone variety.
Today, CBD extraction is proving useful in various applications far wider than the original ones where it sprung. However, unlike THC in marijuana plants, CBD is not psychoactive, meaning it doesn’t cause the “high” associated with marijuana.
The big picture is finding a reliable extraction method; it is crucial in producing a high- quality and safe product without contaminants. Given that cannabis oil is a highly concentrated substance that contains more than just Cannabidiol (CBD), it only makes sense that the extraction process involves more than just one substance.
For example, when extracting essential oils from plants like lavender or peppermint, ethanol is almost always used along with another substance like olive oil or coconut oil.
In essence, extracting CBD from cannabis is easy, if you know how to do it. Unfortunately, there are a lot of things that can go wrong when extracting CBD from cannabis with alcohol. That is why we created this article. It addresses CBD extraction with the aid of alcohol as the main solvent. Let’s dive in.
Alcohol extraction from CBD
Alcohol extraction is very common in making cannabis extracts. The process is fast and relatively simple. You can make a CBD/Cannabis extract with rubbing alcohol (isopropyl), but the most common and safest solvents to use are ethanol or grain alcohol.
Alcohol is a polar solvent, meaning it will dissolve polar molecules—such as chlorophyll, the a green pigment found in plants. To be more precise, it will dissolve them into the water portion of the solution. This is why you have to separate the two phases when making an alcohol extraction.
The more polar the solvent is, the more likely it will be able to remove chlorophyll from the plant material and result in a cleaner extract.
Alcohol extraction can be done with high potency cannabis flower or trim, kief or hash. You can also use low-quality cannabis material to make your own low-potency edibles or topicals.
Ethanol extraction is preferred over other solvents due to its safety, cost-effectiveness and versatility. The process of ethanol extraction involves soaking the plant material in ethanol (which acts as a solvent) to extract cannabinoids such as CBD, CBG, THC and others.
The soluble components are then separated from the plant material using a filtration process. The components are then evaporated off using low heat to arrive at a concentrated extract. The extracts obtained through ethanol extraction are amber in color and have a thick consistency.
Ethanol extraction can be carried out at room temperature or by heating the solution to enhance cannabinoid extraction rates.
However, one of the major drawbacks of this method is that it also extracts chlorophyll from the plant matter which leads to bitter-tasting extracts. Thus, a post-extraction winterization step is necessary to remove chlorophyll and any other lipids or waxes present in raw oil.
In addition, extracts obtained through ethanol extraction tend to be less pure than those obtained through supercritical CO2 extraction or butane extraction.
Why is alcohol ideal for CBD extraction?
One of the most important things to consider when buying your CBD oil extract or CBD crystals is the solvent used in its extraction process. The solvent that is used to make your product has a direct impact on the quality of the end product you’re going to receive.
While there are several different types of solvents that can be used, one of the most popular and effective solvents for extracting CBD is ethanol. Ethanol is a clear liquid and works well in extracting cannabinoids from plant material.
Here are some more detailed facts about why ethanol is such an optimal choice for creating CBD oil:
Ethanol extraction is a simple process
If you’re looking for an efficient, uncomplicated method for CBD extraction, ethanol extraction is for you. With this process, you can easily remove unwanted plant material from your extract. This allows you to create a purer end product, which makes it easier to do whatever it is you’d like to do with it, be it vaping it or using it topically.
Ethanol extraction doesn’t damage terpenes
Many other methods of extraction can damage beneficial terpenes found in cannabis, but with ethanol extraction, this isn’t a problem. As long as your ethanol comes from food-grade sources.
Alcohol is cheap and available
First of all, alcohol is inexpensive, whereas other solvents such as butane are not. This is because alcohol can be easily made at home with a still. On the other hand, butane must be purchased from a chemical supply company.
Furthermore, the initial cost of purchasing a butane extractor can cost up to ten times more than an alcohol extractor. Alcohol is also less expensive due to the fact that it does not require purchases of new equipment.
Alcohol is safer
Moreover, alcohol is safer than other solvents since it evaporates at room temperature, making it much less likely to cause an explosion during extraction.
Other solvents such as propane and butane require heaters which are more likely to cause an explosion due to a higher chance of malfunctioning when used for long periods of time. In addition, there have been many cases where people have caused fires when attempting to make extracts with butane inside their homes; therefore we do not recommend using this method in order to extract your cannabis oil.
Lastly, it is an all-natural product that is widely available in varying strengths, which makes it a great choice for this process. It also has been used for years as a solvent for various products and ingredients, making it a natural fit for this application.
Butane vs. Ethanol
Why then would anyone want to use butane instead of alcohol?
The main reason is that butane extracts more CBD. In fact, it extracts much more than just CBD – butane will pull out everything except the water and a little bit of chlorophyll. And that’s important because there are many other cannabinoids besides CBD – THC, CBG and so forth.
But there are also many other chemicals besides cannabinoids – terpenes, plant waxes and so forth. And those other chemicals will go into the butane extract too.
So when you make an extract with butane you get a kind of sludge that contains all kinds of stuff you don’t want: waxes and chlorophyll and whatever else was in the plant. And some of those things may be dangerous or unpleasant – for example, when marijuana with a high THC content is made into an edible oil for eating on food.
Alcohol is the most preferred solvent for CBD extraction. It has a low boiling point, which means that it evaporates fast. Since alcohol is flammable and hazardous, all the other solvents that have higher boiling points are not preferred. Isopropyl alcohol and ethanol are used to extract CBD.
The only difference between them is that ethanol is derived from plants whereas Isopropyl is made from petroleum. Alcohol extraction is also known as the ethanol method because ethanol creates a mixture of both water and alcohol in the ratio of 70% alcohol and 30% water.
When it comes to purifying ethanol, you need to remove the water content from it by using different distillation techniques like molecular distillation, short path distillation, and wiped film distillation.